岩石常由多种矿物组成。其标本鉴定必须以矿物鉴定为基础。一般从以下四个方面进行 rock is often composed of many kinds of mineral. the identification of specimens must be based on the mineral identification. generally from the following four aspects：
1化学成分分析。查明岩石的化学成分 chemical composition analysis. find out the chemical composition of the rock.。
the mineral composition. find out the main minerals in the rock, secondary minerals and accessory minerals and associated minerals of species and its content, in order to ensure that the results are accurate, sometimes must also be those with a variety of mineral rock composed by separate minerals in order to choose extremely pure single mineral samples. the separation process includes sample specimen examination, breaking and sifting - three stages of sorting. sorting method uses gravity method and magnetic method, electrostatic method, dielectric method, floating method, etc. 。
to identify the structure of the rock. the former finds out the composition of rock mineral crystallization degree, shape, size, and grain between each other, and the relationship between grain size and vitreous which is found in rocks of different shape and size of mineral aggregate and its each other or the mutual relations between all parts of the rock.
④调查研究岩石标本在地壳里的产出状况。主要是查明岩石的形态 (层状、似层状、脉状、岩墙状、岩株状、岩基状等 )、延长和倾斜方向、规模或大小等。目前，岩石(包括部分矿石)标本的鉴定仍以偏光显微镜下的岩石薄片鉴定法比较常用，必要时也采用反光显微镜下的光片鉴定法及其他科学方法。
the investigation and study of rock specimens in output in the crust. mainly to find out the shape of the rock (layered, stratified, vein, rock wall, rock strain, stress, etc.), extended and tilt direction, scale or size and so on. at present, rock (including ore) specimens identification of rock under polarizing microscope thin slice identification method is most commonly used, if necessary, also uses reflective light microscopic identification method and other scientific methods.