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真马化石研究获进展
文章来源:http://www.hzzhbb.cn/ 仁和智华地质标本
古马型真马是欧亚大陆真马,其出现、演化和扩散伴随着很多重大的地质和环境事件,因此它们在欧亚大陆的首次出现被视为第四纪底界的标志,并且是研究第四纪气候和环境变化的重要材料,吸引着世界各地的古生物学者和第四纪研究者。中国是出产真马化石的大国。在二十世纪初,很多著名的古生物学家都研究过中国的真马化石。1935年,奥地利古生物学家师丹斯基出版了第一本关于中国真马化石的专著。他记述了产自河北、河南、山西、山东的真马化石,并且把其中所有的古马型真马标本都鉴定为三门马相似种(equus cf. sanmeniensis)。这些材料由瑞典地质学家、当时担任民国政府农商部矿务顾问的安特生采集,后来被运到瑞典的乌普萨拉,构成了留在海外的规模大的中国化石收藏——拉氏藏品。师丹斯基对于这一经典藏品的研究专著无疑有着巨大的学术价值,然而,把数量如此众多,各具不同体型和特征的材料归为一个种并不太妥当。
the horse is a eurasian kumar type the first true horse, the emergence, evolution and diffusion with many important geological and environmental events, so they first appeared in eurasia is seen as a sign of the quaternary bottom field, and is an important material for the study of the quaternary climate and environment change, attracting paleontologists and the researchers around the world. china is a big country producing true horse fossils. in the early twentieth century, many famous paleontologists have studied chinese true horse fossils. in 1935, the austria paleontologist, dan sky, published the first monograph on the chinese true horse fossils. he described from hebei, henan, shanxi, shandong and the equus, which all kumar type horse specimens were identified as three species (equus cf., sanmeniensis as well as similar). these materials by the swedish geologist, then served as the government of the republic of china ministry of agriculture and commerce mining consultant andersson acquisition, later transported to uppsala in sweden, constitute the largest overseas china fossil collection laplace collection. otto zdansky undoubtedly has great academic value for research monographs of this classic collection however, the number of so many, with different size and characteristics of the material is a kind of not too.
 
中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究团队对拉氏藏品中的真马化石进行了重新的整理研究,他们从产自山西省祁县(安特生32地点)的材料里识别出两个不同于三门马的类型,即德氏马(equus teilhardi)和庆阳马(equus qingyangensis)。以博士生孙博阳为第一作者,研究员邓涛为通讯作者的这一研究成果在线发表于国际学术期刊《历史生物学》(historical biology)上。
institute of vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology china academy of sciences research team conducted research on re lagrange in the collections of equus, they produced in shanxi province from qixian (andersson 32 place) of the material identified two different from the three types of deshi kadoma, ma (equus teilhardi) and qingyang the horse (equus qingyangensis). taking doctoral student sun boyang as the first author and researcher deng tao as the author of communication, this research is published online recently in the international academic journal historical biology.
 
德氏马由于材料稀少,人们对它认识很少。它的正型标本只有一段残破的下颌。尽管后来的研究者报道了一些补充材料,但也都是残破的头骨、牙齿和头后骨骼,对于认识这个种的性质没有太大帮助。产自祁县的这具头骨是德氏马首个完整头骨的记录,不仅提供了重要的颅面部特征信息,还提供了头基长和颅部比例。这些信息表明德氏马是一类体型中等、肢骨短的古马型真马,其颅部比例和三门马一致。因为下门齿缺失齿坎,德氏马一直被认为是高度特化且分类地位不明的类群。在该研究中,作者结合新材料,并对比了原始真马简齿马(e. simplicidens)的一部分标本,最终得出结论:门齿齿坎缺失或不全是一个不稳定的特征,可能是从某些原始的类群继承下来的。
delma has little knowledge of it because of the scarcity of materials. its positive specimen has only a broken mandible.  although later researchers reported some supplementary materials, they were also broken bones, teeth and head bones, which were not very helpful for understanding this nature. this skull from qixian is a complete record of deshi horse skull, not only provides important information for cranial facial features, also provides the head length and proportion of cranial base. this information shows that deshi is a real horse horse kumar type, a class of medium size short limb bones, consistent cranial proportions and three well. because of lower incisors missing tooth ridge, deshi horse has been considered to be highly specialized and taxonomic status of unknown taxa. in this study, the author combines new materials, and compared the original real horse horse tooth (e. simplicidens) in a part of the specimen, finally draws the conclusion: incisor tooth ridge is missing or not is not a stable features may be inherited from some primitive groups.
 
该研究中报道的另一个种是庆阳马。材料是一件残破的下颌骨,和之前在甘肃庆阳地区发现的材料特征一致。因此,祁县地点是发现庆阳马和德氏马共生的第二个地点。德氏马的头骨反映出了和庆阳马差别明显的特征,很好地解释了这两个种能和平共处的原因是由于占据着不同的生态位。
the other species reported in the study is the qingyang horse. the material is a broken mandible, consistent with the previous material found in qingyang, gansu. therefore, qixian location is found in qingyang's horse and horse symbiotic second locations. delma's skull reflects the distinctive characteristics of qingyang horse, which explains why the two species can coexist peacefully because they occupy different niches.
 
庆阳马是欧亚大陆上原始的古马型真马,它与简齿马在形态上有一些相似的特征,而简齿马是所有真马的祖先类型。然而,庆阳马较为进步的肢骨和与德氏马的共生表明二者并没有祖裔关系。一些欧亚大陆的古马型真马有着小到中等的体型、不完整的门齿齿坎和短的肢骨,如中国的云南马(equus yunnanensis)和欧洲的斯氏马(equus stehlini),它们可能与德氏马存在着亲缘关系。真马的演化过程错综复杂,留下许多问题有待研究者解答,然而这也正是真马研究的魅力所在。
qingyang horse is kumar type real horse eurasia on the most primitive, it has some similar characteristics with jane horse tooth in the form, but jane is all real horse horse tooth type ancestors. however, the more progressive limbs of the qingyang horse and the symbiosis with the deshi horse show that there is no ancestor relationship between the two. some eurasian kumar type real horse with small to medium size, incomplete and short limb incisor tooth ridge bone, such as china yunnan horse (equus yunnanensis) and european stevensi (equus stehlini), their horses may have genetic relationship with deshi horse. the evolutionary process of the real horse is intricate, leaving many questions to be answered by the researchers, but this is the charm of real horse research.
 
该研究由国家自然科学基金重点项目、中科院先导培育项目和中科院前沿科学重点研究项目资助。
the research is funded by the key projects of the national natural science foundation, the pilot cultivation project of the chinese academy of sciences and the leading scientific research projects of the chinese academy of sciences.